Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Kersey Graves Debunked-The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors

The following two study videos I recently completed briefly examine and refute the central ideas found in Graves' book:


Footnotes:
1) Carrier article on Graves:
http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/graves.html
2) http://www.kingdavid8.com/Copycat/JesusZulis.html
3) http://www.tektonics.org/copycat/crite.html
4) The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature Volume 36, p 262
"The name S(S)iduri cannot be separated from Sirtur (Ze-ir-tu-ur, Sir-du), mother of Tammuz; the first r has been dropped by dissimilation. Unfortunately we know nothing directly about this divinity except her name."
5) http://www.gsbkerala.com/panduranga.htm
6) This gentleman (who is a pagan himself) has the most extensive and one of the only meritorious websites on the web that is devoted to this god. As such he has received emails asking about Esus being a prototype for Jesus and scoffs at such notions (he has a page refuting such pretentions):
http://www.chronarchy.com/esus/aboutesus.html
7) These come from the Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pituras [post-conquest codex written in the 1530s] and Anal de Cuauahtitlan and leyenda de las soles. Etymology of xochiquetzal:
http://www.behindthename.com/name/xochiquetzal
8) Encyclopedia entry on Indra:
http://www.pantheon.org/articles/i/indra.html
9) http://www.reference.com/browse/Alcestis
10) Barry B. Powell Classical Myth, 247-248.
The birth from Zeus' semen is a less common version in most it is from Adgistis' semen and blood.
11) http://varnam.org/blog/2004/09/lord_krishna_lived_for_125_yea/
12) Tammuz is the Hebrew and Aramaic pronunciation that is popularized by it's use in the Old Testament where God is abhorred with his worship. Dummuzi is the (more) original Sumerian pronunciation of the god.
13) You can read an online translation of the courtship of Ianna and Dummuzi here: http://www.piney.com/BabCourship.html
14) Our earliest text on Esus is the post-Christian Lucan (Pharsalia I, 422-465). He talks about human sacrifices offered to the god in his Bellum civile
15) Hesiod, Theogony 507ff
16) http://classics.mit.edu/Euripides/alcestis.html
17) Barry B. Powell Classical Myth, 247-248
18) Edwin M. Yamauchi, "Easter-Myth, Hallucination, or History? First of Two parts", 5
19) "Those who seek to adduce Mithra as a prototype of the risen Christ ignore the late date for the expansion of Mithraism to the west."
Yamauchi quoted by Lee Strobel, The Case for the Real Jesus,168-169
"We have almost no evidence of Mithraism in the sense of a mystery religion in the West until very late-too late to have influenced the beginnings of Christianity...The earliest Mithraea are dated to the early second century. There are a handful of inscriptions that date to the early second century, but the vast majority of texts date are dated after A.D. 140. Most of what we have as evidence of Mithraism comes in the second, third and fourth centuries A.D...That's... what's wrong with...theories about Mithraism influencing the beginnings of Christianity"
20) Ibid. Strobel, 169.
21) Encyclopedia of Religion, Second Edition, vol 9, Lindsay Jones Editor and Chief (2005 Thompson Gale), 6091.
22) Manfred Clauss, The Roman Cult of Mithras, 62-63.
23) Personal email correspondence that took place on 10/14/10.
24) Personal email correspondence that took place on 10/13/2010.
25) Article by Carrier: http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/graves.html
26) Barry B. Powell, Classical Myth, 238-41
27) Ovid, Metamorphoses 10.708-39
28) Edwin M. Yamauchi, "Easter-Myth, Hallucination, or History". Christianity Today (March 15, 1974).,4
See also: http://jss.oxfordjournals.org/content/XI/1/10.extract
"In the case of the Mesopotamian Tammuz (Sumerian Dumuzi), his alleged resurrection by the goddess Inanna-Ishtar had been assumed even though the end of both the Sumerian and the Akkadian texts of the myth of "the Descent of Inanna (Ishtar)" had not been preserved. Professor S. N. Kramer in 1960 published a new poem, "The Death of Dumuzi," that proves conclusively that instead of rescuing Dumuzi from the Underworld, Inanna sent him there as her substitute." "This gives us the irrefutable evidence for the death of Tammuz and the necessity for him to remain dead"
"Tammuz was identified by later writers with the Phoenician Adonis, the beautiful youth beloved of Aphrodite...P. Lambrechts has shown that there is no trace of a resurrection in the early texts or pictorial representations of Adonis."
29) Quoted by Michael Licona in his article refuting Acharya S.: http://www.risenjesus.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=14:a-refutation-of-acharya-ss-book-the-christ-conspiracy-&catid=4:articles&Itemid=19
30) Kersey Graves, The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors, 122
31) Ibid Powell, 625. See also Plutarch, Life of Numa Pompilius.
32) Ibid. Encyclopedia of religion, 7420
33) Play here: http://classics.uc.edu/~johnson/tragedy/summaries/alcestis.html
34) Reward at Kingdavid8.com under "Christ Myther Challenge" and Zeitgeistchallenge.com (totals as of now to 2000$).
35) Ibid., Powell, 247.
36) Ibid., Yamauchi "Easter",5.
37) Ibid., The Case for the Real Jesus, 169.
38) Richard Gordan, Greco-Roman World, (1996), 96.